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凤凰网财经 > 财经滚动新闻

深刻认识美国制造经贸摩擦的原因(热点辨析)

传奇sf 列强从未将中国视为平等一员,甚至把战败的德国在山东的权益转让给日本。


来源: 人民日报

杨英杰

人民网-人民日报

此次中美经贸摩擦,是美国单方面挑起、一手制造的。对于美国挑起经贸摩擦,我们要深刻认识其原因,予以妥善应对。

阻止中国产业升级,是美国制造经贸摩擦的一大动机。改革开放以来特别是加入世界贸易组织后,中国在全球产业分工中的地位不断上升。改革开放之初,中国主要以“三来一补”形式发展低端劳动力密集型产业。加入世界贸易组织后,许多高科技类外资企业纷纷在中国设立子公司,成为中国出口的主力军。如今,中国高科技企业逐渐崛起,正在成为具有全球竞争力的世界一流企业,同时制造业加速转型升级。美国将中国高端产业领域作为重点打击对象,其真实目的不在于降低所谓贸易逆差,而是要阻止中国产业升级。诺贝尔经济学奖获得者、美国经济学家斯蒂格利茨近日撰文指出,有一点是非常清楚的:如果美国政府的目的在于阻止中国实施《中国制造2025》,那么几乎可以肯定会失败。这样的行动只会使中国领导人看清美国浓烈的敌意,进而抛弃任何依赖他人的想法,更加坚定决心、花大力气推动创新并提振技术地位。

美国劳资矛盾激化,是美国制造经贸摩擦的一大原因。近几十年来,美国收入分配差距不断扩大,这在很大程度上要归因于其产业结构变化。就制造业而言,美国高端制造业处于世界前列,正向高端智能化方向发展,一般制造业衰落成为必然。就三次产业而言,第一产业和第二产业的主导地位早已被第三产业所取代。在第三产业内部,高附加值第三产业(金融保险、房地产、租赁业、专业服务业等)的增长明显快于低附加值第三产业(批发零售、运输仓储、信息、教育、卫生、艺术娱乐等)。第三产业特别是高附加值第三产业是资本密集型产业,资本收益要远远高于劳动收益。2008年国际金融危机后爆发的“占领华尔街”运动,表明分配差距拉大造成的社会矛盾亟须解决。但美国政府开错了药方,自己生病却让别人吃药,以贸易逆差问题为借口制造国际经贸摩擦。美国不是通过缩小收入分配差距、提升储蓄率等举措来解决国内矛盾、缩减贸易逆差,而是想让别国为自己的问题买单,把国内矛盾转嫁给其他国家。天下哪有这般道理?

面对美国挑起的经贸摩擦,我们在坚决反制的同时,关键是保持战略定力,继续做好自己的事情。要贯彻落实中央精神,深入推进供给侧结构性改革,打好“三大攻坚战”,加快建设现代化经济体系,推动高质量发展;坚持稳中求进工作总基调,保持经济运行在合理区间,加强统筹协调,形成政策合力,精准施策,扎实细致工作。当前,可在深化市场取向改革、加强基础设施建设、深化国有企业改革、促进民间投资和民营经济发展、降低企业成本、营造公平竞争市场环境等方面进一步加大力度。同时,深入推进“一带一路”建设,积极推动各参与国互利合作、共同发展。

(作者为中央党校习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想研究中心研究员、中央党校报刊社副总编辑)

《 人民日报》( 2018-10-2007 版)

[责任编辑:兰丽娜 PF020]

责任编辑:兰丽娜 PF020

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